Also Known As: Stavudine, Stavudine, Zerit
Stavudine (2'-3'-didehydro-2'-3'-dideoxythymidine, d4T, brand name Zerit) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI) active against HIV.
Stavudine was first synthetized in the sixties by Jerome Horwitz. It was subsequently reconsidered as an anti-HIV agent by the Rega Institute for Medical Research in Belgium. Stavudine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on June 24, 1994 for adults and on September 6, 1996 for pediatric use and again as an extended-release version for once-a-day dosing in 2001. The fourth antiretroviral drug on the market, its patent expired in the United States on 2008-06-25.
Stavudine is an analog of thymidine. It is phosphorylated by cellular kinases into active triphosphate. Stavudine triphosphate inhibits the HIV reverse transcriptase by competing with natural substrate, thymidine triphosphate. It also causes termination of DNA synthesis by incorporating into it.
Simultaneous use of zidovudine is not recommended, as it can inhibit the intracellular phosphorylation of stavudine. Other anti-HIV drugs do not possess this property.