Also Known As: Metoclopramide, Reglan
Metoclopramide (INN) is an antiemetic and gastroprokinetic agent. It is commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting, to facilitate gastric emptying in people with gastroparesis, and as a treatment for the gastric stasis often associated with migraine headaches.
Metoclopramide is commonly used to treat nausea including that which is due to chemotherapy and that occurring post operatively. Evidence also supports its use for gastroparesis (poor stomach emptying) and gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Metoclopramide commonly treats nausea and vomiting associated with conditions such as uremia, radiation sickness, malignancy, labor, infection, migraine headaches, and emetogenic drugs. In the setting of painful conditions such as migraine headaches, Metoclopramide may be used in combination with paracetamol (acetaminophen) (available in the UK as Paramax, and in Australia as Metomax) or in combination with aspirin (MigraMax).
Metoclopramide increases peristalsis of the jejunum and duodenum, increases tone and amplitude of gastric contractions, and relaxes the pyloric sphincter and duodenal bulb. These gastroprokinetic effects make metoclopramide useful in the treatment of gastric stasis (e.g. after gastric surgery or diabetic gastroparesis), as an aid in gastrointestinal radiographic studies by accelerating transit through the gastrointestinal system in barium studies, and as an aid in difficult intubation of the small intestine. It is also used in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
By inhibiting the action of dopamine, metoclopramide has sometimes been used to stimulate lactation. It can also be used in the treatment of migraines in the setting of allodynia, where it is more effective than triptans.