Also Known As: Vitamin K2, Menaquinones, MK-4, MK-7, Menaquinone-4, Menaquinone-7
Menatetrenone (INN), also known as MK4, is a menaquinone compound used as a hemostatic agent and as adjunctive therapy for the pain of osteoporosis. It is marketed for the latter indication in Japan by Eisai Co., under the trade name Glakay.
Menatetrenone (MK4) is one of the nine forms of vitamin K2.
Vitamin K2 (MK4) and bone health
In contrast, MK4 has been shown in numerous studies to reduce fracture risk, stop and reverse bone loss. In Japan, MK4 in the dose of 45 mg daily is recognized as a treatment for osteoporosis under the trade name Glakay. MK4 has been shown to decrease fractures up to 87%. In the amount of 45 mg daily MK4 has been approved by the Ministry of Health in Japan since 1995 for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
MK4 (but not MK7 or vitamin K1) prevented bone loss and/or fractures in the following circumstances:
- caused by corticosteroids (e.g., prednisone, dexamethasone, prednisolone)
- anorexia nervosa
- cirrhosis of the liver
- postmenopausal osteoporosis
- disuse from stroke
- Alzheimer's disease
- Parkinson disease
- primary biliary cirrhosis
- leuprolide treatment (for prostate cancer).
Vitamin K2 (MK7) and bone health
Menaquinone-7 (MK7), which is abundant in fermented soybeans (natto), has been demonstrated to stimulate osteoblastic bone formation and to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption. In another study, use of MK-7 caused significant elevations of serum Y-carboxylated osteocalcin concentration, a biomarker of bone formation. MK-7 also completely inhibited a decrease in the calcium content of bone tissue by inhibiting the bone-resorbing factors parathyroid hormone and prostaglandin E2. On 19 February 2011, HSA (Singapore) approved a health supplement that contains vitamin K2 (MK7) and vitamin D3 for increasing bone mineral density.