Also Known As: Meldonium, Mildronate

Meldonium (INN), trade-named as Mildronate among others, is a limited-market pharmaceutical, developed in 1970 by Ivars Kalviņš, and manufactured primarily byGrindeks of Latvia and several generic manufacturers. It is distributed in Eastern European countries as an anti-ischemia medication.[1]

Since 1 January 2016, it has been on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of substances banned from use by athletes.[2] However, there are debates over its use as an athletic performance enhancer. Some athletes are known to have been using it before it was banned.[3] It is currently unscheduled in the US.

Meldonium may be used to treat coronary artery disease.[4][5] These heart problems may sometimes lead to ischemia, which is essentially not enough blood flowing to the organs in your body, especially the heart in the means of coronary artery disease. Because this drug is thought to expand the arteries, it helps to increase the blood flow as well as increase the flow of oxygen throughout the body.[6] Meldonium has also been found to induce anticonvulsant and antihypnotic effects involving alpha 2-adrenergic receptors as well as nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms. This, in summary, shows that meldonium given in acute doses could be beneficial for the treatment of seizures and alcohol intoxication.[7] It may also have some effect on decreasing the severity of withdrawal symptoms caused by the cessation of chronic alcohol use.

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