Also Known As: Isoniazid, INH, Laniazid, Nydrazid, Isonicotinylhydrazine, Rifamate
Isoniazid (Laniazid, Nydrazid), also known as isonicotinylhydrazine (INH), is an organic compound that is the first-line anti tuberculosis medication in prevention and treatment. It was first discovered in 1912, and later in 1951 it was found to be effective against tuberculosis by inhibiting its mycolic acid (wax coat). Isoniazid is never used on its own to treat active tuberculosis because resistance quickly develops. Isoniazid also has an antidepressant effect, and it was one of the first antidepressants discovered. Isoniazid can also be used in the treatment of a BCG-oma.
The compound was first synthesised in the early 20th century, but its activity against tuberculosis was first reported in the early 1950s and three pharmaceutical companies attempted unsuccessfully to simultaneously patent the drug (the most prominent one being Roche, who launched their version, Rimifon, in 1952). With the introduction of isoniazid, a cure for tuberculosis was first considered reasonable.
Isoniazid is available in tablet, syrup, and injectable forms (given intramuscularly or intravenously). Isoniazid is available worldwide, is inexpensive and is generally well tolerated. It is manufactured from isonicotinic acid, which is produced from 4-methylpyridine.