Monoclonal Antibody to COVID 19

Also Known As: Monoclonal Antibody, Xevudy, Bamlanivimab/Etesevimab, Casirivimab/Imdevimab, Tixagevimab/cilgavimab, Regdanvimab


Casirivimab/imdevimab, sold under the brand name REGEN-COV among others,[74][75] is a combination medicine used for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19.[75] It consists of two human monoclonal antibodiescasirivimab and imdevimab that must be mixed together and administered as an infusion or subcutaneous injection.[76][74][75] The combination of two antibodies is intended to prevent mutational escape.[77] It is also available as a co-formulated product.[76] It was developed by the American biotechnology company Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.[78][79]

The most common side effects include allergic reactions, which include infusion related reactions, injection site reactions,[75] brief pain, weakness and others.[80]

The combination is approved under the brand name Ronapreve for medical use in Japan, the United Kingdom, the European Union, and Australia.[81][82][75][83][84][85]


Bamlanivimab/etesevimab is a combination of two monoclonal antibodiesbamlanivimab and etesevimab, administered together via intravenous infusion as a treatment for COVID-19.[86][87][88][89] Both types of antibody target the surface spike protein of SARS‑CoV‑2.[90][91]

Bamlanivimab and etesevimab, administered together, are authorized in the United States for the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in people aged twelve years of age and older weighing at least 40 kilograms (88 lb) with positive results of direct SARS-CoV-2 viral testing, and who are at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death.[92][93] They are also authorized, when administered together, for use after exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus for post-exposure prophylaxis (prevention) for COVID-19 and are not authorized for pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent COVID-19 before being exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus.[92][93]


Sotrovimab, sold under the brand name Xevudy, is a human neutralizing monoclonal antibody with activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, known as SARS-CoV-2.[94][95][96] It is under development by GlaxoSmithKline and Vir Biotechnology, Inc.[95][97] Sotrovimab is designed to attach to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.[95][96][98]

The most common side effects include hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions and infusion-related reactions.[94]


Tixagevimab/cilgavimab is a combination of two human monoclonal antibodiestixagevimab (AZD8895) and cilgavimab (AZD1061) targeted against the surface spike protein of SARS-CoV-2[99][100] used to prevent COVID-19. It is being developed by British-Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company AstraZeneca.[101][102] It is co-packaged and given as two separate consecutive intramuscular injections (one injection per monoclonal antibody, given in immediate succession).[103]


Regdanvimab, sold under the brand name Regkirona, is a human monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of COVID-19.[104] The antibody is directed against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. It is developed by Celltrion.[105][106] The medicine is given by infusion (drip) into a vein.[104][107]

The most common side effects include infusion-related reactions, including allergic reactions and anaphylaxis.[104]

Regdanvimab was approved for medical use in the European Union in November 2021.[104]
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