Toxic multinodular goiter

Also Known As: Toxic multinodular goiter, Toxic nodular goiter, Toxic nodular struma

Toxic multinodular goiter (also known as toxic nodular goitertoxic nodular struma) is a multinodular goiter associated with a hyperthyroidism.

It is a common cause of hyperthyroidism[1][2] in which there is excess production of thyroid hormones from functionally autonomous thyroid nodules, which do not require stimulation from thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).[3]

It is the second most common cause of hyperthyroidism (after Graves' disease) in the developed world. In countries where the population is iodine-deficient i.e. the developing world, iodine deficiency is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. (Decreased iodine leads to decreased thyroid hormone.) However, iodine deficiency can cause goitre (thyroid enlargement); within a goitre, nodules can develop. Risk factors for toxic multinodular goiter include individuals over 60 years of age and being female.[4]

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