Ophthalmic astigmatism is a refraction error of the eye in which there is a difference in degree of refraction in different meridians. It is typically characterized by an aspherical, non-figure of revolution cornea in which the corneal profile slopeand refractive power in one meridian is less than that of the perpendicular axis.

Astigmatism causes difficulties in seeing fine detail. Astigmatism can be often corrected by glasses with a lens that has different radii of curvature in different planes (a cylindrical lens), contact lenses, or refractive surgery.[3]

Astigmatism is quite common. Studies have shown that about one in three people suffers from it.[4][5][6] The prevalence of astigmatism increases with age.[7] Although a person may not notice mild astigmatism, higher amounts of astigmatism may cause blurry vision, squinting, asthenopia, fatigue, or headaches.[8][9][10]

There are a number of tests that are used by ophthalmologists and optometrists during eye examinations to determine the presence of astigmatism and to quantify the amount and axis of the astigmatism.[11] A Snellen chart or other eye chart may initially reveal reduced visual acuity. A keratometer may be used to measure the curvature of the steepest and flattest meridians in the cornea's front surface.[12] Corneal topography may also be used to obtain a more accurate representation of the cornea's shape.[13] An autorefractor or retinoscopy may provide an objective estimate of the eye's refractive error and the use of Jackson cross cylinders in a phoropter may be used to subjectively refine those measurements.[14][15][16] An alternative technique with the phoropter requires the use of a "clock dial" or "sunburst" chart to determine the astigmatic axis and power.[17][18]

Astigmatism may be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery. The planning and analysis of astigmatism treatment in corneal, cataract, and refractive surgery has been outlined by the American National Standards Institute, and was originally described by Australian ophthalmologist Noel A. Alpins in his Alpins method of astigmatism analysis. Various considerations involving ocular health, refractive status, and lifestyle frequently determine whether one option may be better than another. In those with keratoconus, toric contact lenses often enable patients to achieve better visual acuities than eyeglasses. If the astigmatism is caused by a problem such as deformation of the eyeball due to a chalazion, treating the underlying cause will resolve the astigmatism.

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